Literature review on negotiation term paper

In: Business and Management. Literature Review While looking at the case of the Louisiana purchase, five key theories to negotiation are prevalent throughout the negotiation; Concession making, Contending, Matching, Reciprocation and the Psychological theory of international relations as seen in The Kennedy Experiment.

Starting with Dean G. Pruitt and Peter J. Pruitt continues to say that when concession is made, it always provides less of a benefit to oneself. Therefore, what Pruitt is trying to get across is that the assumption is not always a valid one. Concession making can have various effects on the negotiation at hand. Pruitt outlines three interrelated findings concerning the impact of concession making on negotiation outcomes, they are; If agreement is reached, firmer negotiators will usually achieve larger outcomes, firmness tends Unit 8 Joseph Delbert CJ Crisis Negotiation Abstract We have not always had crisis negotiation there was a time we law enforcement relied on just the basic communicational skills of their officers.

There were no set guidelines to negotiation, not formal training, and least of all a negotiation team. The Attica prison riot and the Olympic Terrorist attack both had the same things in common, hostages and demands.

The following of these historical events led to a change in the application of crisis negotiation. There were about 1, rebelled and seized control of the prison. The reason for the riot was based on the prisoners' wanting better living conditions as the prison was over overcrowded at the time.

There were 43 staff members taken hostage during the riot, which the prisoners for hostages and negations. For 4 days the prisoners made demands and the authorities agreed.

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Negotiations broke down over two key points. To achieve this, a workplace scenario was analysed and theories were applied in order to gain an understanding of what was happening in the interaction and what could be done to try to achieve a better outcome for all parties. In this report firstly a literature review was undertaken in order to introduce the reader in the types of theories which would be examined in the context of the work place case study.

Next a detailed discussion of the workplace scenario was undertaken highlighting the key points of the situation and interactions as well as a detailed description of the three key characters and the key behaviours which they are seen to display. In the main section of the report a detailed review of the applicable theories and how they are demonstrated in the case study. The theories investigated cover the areas on Conflict, Communication, Negotiation and the use of Power Bases and found that many different different theories were visible in the day to day communication.

Some of the theories which were seen and discussed were Negotiation Styles and Strategies, use of a BANTA, the use of nonverbal communication techniques and theories of social tension.

In the final section of the report three recommendations were given which when used would provide the parties a more successful communication and negotiation experience. The recommended strategies References: This document contains references to 43 other documents To copy this document: permissions emeraldinsight. The NAMA negotiations are aimed to reduce or eliminate tariffs, including tariff peaks, high tariffs, tariff escalation and nontariff barriers for non-agricultural goods, in particular on products of export interest to developing countries.

Non-agricultural products include industrial goods, manufactured goods, textiles, fuels and mining products, footwear, jewellery, forestry products, fish and fisheries, and chemicals. WTO has decided to take Special and Differential treatment for developing and least developed Members like Bangladesh, including through less than full reciprocity in the reduction measures to assist LDCs to participate effectively in the negotiations.

As the structure of Bangladesh export is heavily titled towards labor-intensive sectors as apparels and textiles, increase in export will likely to have consequent positive implications on new job creations in RMG sector. Negotiating Rationally by Bazermann et al. Therefore it reviews the literature already existent and also incorporates own experiences, gained during many seminars.

The book is full of real life examples which were told or experienced by the author. Bazerman et al. The authors present a framework on negotiating rationally. This framework was developed a decade before writing the book and got intertwined with previous research as well as the experience of teaching Master students.

As their Curriculum Vitae reveals, Bazerman as well as Neale specialized in organizational behavior. Bazerman worked on decision making, consumer behavior and negotiating skills. Neale worked primarily on Negotiation sciences but also on conflict management. Summary of the Contents.You may be asked to submit a literature review for your research paper. It is designed very differently from the research paper itself. The research paper is designed to develop new ideas, and this is contradictory from a literature review which is just a description of the literary sources that would be used to conduct the research.

It is designed to give a synopsis of the various resources that will be used in your research paper. You will use various resources to answer the research question that you are seeking to answer for your research paper.

You have found a topic, developed a research question, and written a thesis statement. The literature that you used in this process is what you would write your literature review on. There are some elements that have to be included in the review. It is not just a simple summary on what the literature is about. The main focus of the literature review is to show how that source will relate to your topic. It should not only give a summary of the work.

You will also want to describe how the piece will be used in the research paper. It could include the interpretation of the information as well. It is used as the foundation for your research paper. It is the support for the new information that you are seeking to contribute through your research paper.

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It will not add any additional information. The main purpose is to give the reader an overview of all of the sources that you used to write your paper whether they were used for a direct quote or as background information.

Or to create a compiled list of the various sources that can be used to study the topic. A literature review is usually used as a part of the research paper. It is especially important for a dissertation research paper. You would submit the literature review in the proposal.

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This will show how you will have enough back up or proof to support your claims. When writing a literature review for a dissertation, you would want to make sure that you only include the sources that deal specifically with your topic. You would not add the ones that were used for back up information. Just for you! Home MBA essays Writing tricks MBA paper samples How to write a good MBA paper Custom writing services 10 helpful writing suggestions Buying custom research papers Term paper on animal experimentation Buying interesting research papers Writing a term paper concluding part Avoiding structure mistakes Buying a custom research paper Buying academic paper samples Looking for a quality service Patriarchy vs.

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D Team cool MBA dissertations. What to include in the review? What is it used for?We use cookies to enhance our website for you.

Example Of Case Study On Negotiation

Proceed if you agree to this policy or learn more about it. Type of paper: Case Study. Executive Summary Negotiations involve a mutual agreement between parties with an aim of improving the currently prevailing situations.

Negotiation is actually a dialogue that occurs between two or more parties with an aim of reaching some form of understanding and hence helps resolve a point of difference. During a negotiation, bargains are carried out and an agreement is reached which satisfies the interests of the involved parties.

Both parties involved in a negotiation try to gain advantage for themselves by the end of the negotiating process. The parties involved in the negotiating process attempts to reach a compromise during the negotiating process so that they are both satisfied with the agreement reached even though it cannot meet all their needs but a majority of their needs are met for the good of both parties.

Negotiations occur in businesses, legal proceedings, government branches, organizations and in everyday life. There are professional negotiators who carry out specialized services for different organizations and government agencies. They include the union negotiators, peace negotiators and the leverage buyout negotiators.

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Negotiations are normally manifested with a trained negotiator who acts on behalf of a specific organization or position. Negotiation is similar to a mediation which involves a third party who has to be neutral during the negotiating process.

The mediator will listen to both parties and then in the process try to strike a compromise between the two parties. A negotiation is also related to an arbitration which involves legal proceedings and a compromise is struck between the two parties. A negotiation comprises of four elements called: strategy, process, tools and tactics.

The strategies in a negotiating process comprise the top level goals which include the relationship between the involved parties and the expected outcome of the negotiating process.

The process and the tools are typically the steps that are supposed to be followed and the roles which are taken when preparing for the negotiating process and the roles taken during the negotiating process.

The tactics on the other hand include the actions and the responses during the negotiating process. Skilled and experienced negotiators use a variety of tactics that range from negotiation hypnosis to a more straight forward method that represents the demands of the parties involved in a more direct manner. Business negotiations may take the form of salary negotiation, mergers and acquisitions, property leasing and in some cases on the way to share the dividends of a given organization.

During the negotiation process, both parties in the process present their case and a tribunal can be formed so as to take note of the information presented.

The information presented by both parties is then analyzed through a win-win mechanism and a common point of agreement reached by the parties involved. This paper analyses how a negotiation can be carried out and some of the compromises that can be reached by either parties in the negotiation.

In the example presented in the paper, a negotiation for salary requires that both the employees whose salaries are to be negotiated about are represented in the negotiating table and the management also be represented in the negotiations. Once the negotiations commences, both parties present their values. A third party who should occupy a neutral stand can then help in determining the best figure that can be favorable for both parties.

In this study for instance we are going to analyze how a negotiation for salary increment for new recruits at general motors for the position of administrative assistants was conducted. A series of consultations then follow and a compromise is reached which is slightly lower than the amount demanded by the employees and slightly higher than the amount initially offered by the employers.

Once a compromise is reached, the contract form can then be signed and the employees can now get ready to work. This paper then looks at the terms and conditions put forward after the negotiation and the benefits that are brought by having a negotiation.

The employer presented their figure to the employees but was not met with satisfaction. The employees needed an increment based on the nature of the job being offered.We use cookies to enhance our website for you. Proceed if you agree to this policy or learn more about it.

Type of paper: Research Paper. Conflicts are inevitable in the workplace due to workforce diversity and the diverse attitudes that people have towards work. However, conflicts are healthy and what matters are the strategies and skills used to resolve them as they arise.

There are different ways of conflict resolution that includes confrontation, compromise, accommodation, avoidance, and collaboration. Confrontational style involves tackling the conflict head-on without fear of punishment from a higher authority. In such a case, the people involved in this kind of a resolution have a weak relationship, have clear goals, and there are high emotional levels involved. On the part of a compromise, there is a bargain and some form of compensation from the parties as a settlement for the conflict.

In this case, the individuals involved have a moderate fear for punishment and have a win-win attitude. This style is commonly used as a quick resolution and the skills applied can be high or low Gatlin, et al, pp1.

literature review on negotiation term paper

Accommodation involves listening to the other party without resisting the alternatives put forward. In such a case, the relationship between individuals in a conflict has a weak relationship, and the emotions are highly suppressed. The attitude thereof is that of lose-win situation, and there is high fear of punishment.

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On the contrast, collaboration involves individuals working together to generate a win-win situation and also develop alternatives for resolving the conflict Gatlin, et al, pp1. Avoidance, just like accommodation involves a lose-win attitude since an individual restrains from addressing a conflict and he, or she has a high fear of punishment from a higher authority. For one to negotiate and reach a consensus there is a need to have adequate and relevant skills. Active listening is a key tactic in negotiation since there is a need to clarify, understand and also acknowledge other people's point of view.

Giving other people a chance to put forward their perspective will help them bring out the issues at hand, make them feel that they have a role to play in the negotiating process and hence resolve conflicts quickly. In addition, assertion skills will aid in the negotiation process since it will give individuals the opportunity to state their case from their strengths other than being quiet and not voice their displeasure.

literature review on negotiation term paper

Also, it is important to manage the other party's emotions so as to defuse them. By managing the emotions, an individual will create a ground for common understanding and hence enable the creation of a win-win situation. In order to resolve a conflict effectively, it is important to follow the four C's of conflict management that stands for connecting, clarify, confirm and contract Tirado, pp Connecting involves addressing issues openly without fear.

As such, an individual trying to resolve the conflict will have to all the facts openly whether they are negative or positive so that parties can understand clearly what issues are before them. Clarity calls for active listeni9ng in order t understand whatever perceptions are being fronted by other people.

As such, it also calls for individuals not to be passive but active and give alternatives that are geared towards resolving the conflict.

Confirmation involves reaching an agreement by all the parties as to understand their needs in addition to establishing the willingness to collaborate Tirado, ppGPA Calculator.

Cumulative GPA Calculator. Essay Topic Generator. Thesis Generator. Term Paper Thesis Thesis Proposal. Sign In Sign Up. Applied science. Negotiation Essays: Free Topic, Sample and Examples Negotiation Assignment IntroductionIkledefined negotiation as a form of interaction where parties put their efforts in arrangement of a new combination of their common and conflicting positions in order to arrive at a common outcome by joint decision.

Thus, negotiation consists of four components: an interaction among parties usually through verbal communication; a collaborative task of solving a problem; both convergent and divergent processes of argument; and generation of discrepancies and differences from Japanese Japan Foreign language Cross cultural.

Individual Negotiation Reflective Portfolio The paper "Individual Negotiation Reflective Portfolio" is a perfect example of an assignment on social science. During the initial negotiation simulation, members of the group assumed positions largely defensive for the organization. The members unfortunately assumed Infrastructure Cross-cultural communication Cross cultural Chinese.

literature review on negotiation term paper

Choosing Negotiation Techniques Choosing Negotiation Techniques Choosing Negotiation Techniques Within a chosen career, it is important that one feels they are adequately compensated and rewarded for their efforts. In many cases, this involves negotiating their salary package and ensuring that they are afforded all of the benefits and pay that they feel their education and experience warrants.

To better facilitate this process, the United States Department of State has published some advice designed to assist employees in getting Negotiation skill and conlfict Negotiation skill and conflict Conflict resolution in http www.

Most conflicts that degenerate into violence begin from small incidences considered minor in most cases. Among others, students could use property of another without the consent and unprovoked contact has the potential to result into violence. Clearly, contacts at the start remained Resort Conflict resolution Conflict Aggression.

Effective communication requires optimal combinations of the appropriate channel of communication and the context within which communication takes place. Effective communication is hindered by the differences between the people involved as well as the fragile means of communication.Rishibha Sachdev.

Many researchers struggle when it comes to writing literature review for their research paper. A literature review is a comprehensive overview of all the knowledge available on a specific topic till date. When you decide on a research topic, usually the first step you take in the direction of conducting research is learn more about the previous research published on the topic, and this eventually translates into literature review when you write your research paper.

Literature review is one of the pillars on which your research idea stands since it provides context, relevance, and background to the research problem you are exploring. Types of literature review. Literature reviews can be categorized as experimental and theoretical. Experimental literature review basically refers to surveying all the information available on a particular topic and critically analyzing the gaps that need to be worked upon.

In this sense, it essentially forms the first experiment of any research project. The more extensive the review, the more precise and systematic the research project will be.

Theoretical literature review essentially involves two steps:. Literature review could be a part of a dissertation or research article and a stand-alone literature review.

Let us look at this in more detail. This forms the literature review for the article. The main purpose of the review is to introduce the readers to the need for conducting the said research.

A literature review should begin with a thorough literature search using the main keywords in relevant online databases such as Google ScholarPubMedetc. Once all the relevant literature has been gathered, it should be organized as follows:. Give the reader context and background about your research problem. Try this course as a part of the All Access Pass free trial.

A literature review should not be a mere recounting of all the available information. It should be a critical and analytical summary of the selected literature that guides the readers through the central theme of the research. Stand-alone literature reviews. Literature reviews can also be written as stand-alone articles. These are not different from the literature review sections described above; however, they are not followed by experimental data.

They basically fall into 2 broad categories: narrative reviews and systematic reviews. Narrative reviews. These are theoretical discussions of relevant information on a particular topic and its critical analysis.

These are mostly qualitative in nature similar to the review sections of larger articles. Narrative reviews are usually organized as follows:. Introduction that establishes the context of the field of research and the topic of the review.A term paper is a research paper required at the end of a school semester. Usually a scientific report or a discussion of an assigned topic, a term paper requires a lot of research and technical writing expertise.

This academic writing assignment must be well-written, analytical, organized, and well-researched—as this reflects your knowledge of a certain course. Watch our video guide to get more information about this type of research paper then get back to reading.

Our next step for writing a term paper is choosing a topic.

Writing the Literature Review (Part One): Step-by-Step Tutorial for Graduate Students

Instructors usually provide topics related to your course. However, sometimes you are free to choose your own topic. Try surfing the web, reading articles, news, magazines, and blogs to get ideas for your term paper. Make sure that the chosen topic will fulfill the objectives of your course and will interest you.

If a certain topic interests you, researching and writing about it will be easier and more fun. Before starting, make sure to follow the instructions that were given to you. Clarifications should be made with your instructor before doing any research or writing work.

If you want quality work and a high-grade, plan ahead and make time every day for writing your assignment.

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Allot time for proofreading your work before handing it in to your professor. A good way to start is by creating a compelling and creative title. Simply fill out an order form, providing us with all your requirements, and consider your paper done.

The outline should be produced before and while researching and writing a term paper because it will serve as the basis around which you will build your work.

There are a lot of templates to choose from, but most of the time your instructor will require you to follow a certain essay format. The main parts should include an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. The structure should be organized and well-researched. Technical writing skills should be crucial in organizing your ideas.

Negotiation Essays: Free Topic, Sample and Examples

The following is a general term paper format or layout that you should follow in presenting your argument or topic:. Do you need some help with your term paper outline? Count on the support of our paper writing service.

Before researching and writing, you should know what a term paper proposal is. Basically, you should be able to defend your topic to your instructor through this proposal.

This proposal must be handed in and approved of before writing the actual term paper. Include recent studies or research on your topic. State the relevance of your topic to your course effectively by submitting a short article with a clear explanation. Provide your objectives and organize the flow of your ideas. There are many examples of term paper proposals available online, including formats and templates.

For the format, first consider the length and the citation style you will use. When you have researched a certain topic, you are required to use a specific citation style. If you neglect to reference properly, you might be accused of plagiarism.


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